Maduro is the Spanish term for ripe; meaning fully developed. A maduro cigar is characterized by its dark wrapper, typically black or close to it.
In its most limited sense, the term maduro can refer to the color of a wrapper leaf, where the darker shade is oscuro. A leaf can end up darker if it comes from a late priming or a stalk-cut plant which is intentionally harvested to produce darker leaves: see broadleaf, Brazil, and Mexico.
A true maduro cigar will have a wrapper which has undergone a longer and/or more intense (higher temperature) fermentation. The specific times and temperatures will vary from one cigar maker to another. This 'enhanced' fermentation releases the natural sugars of the leaf, which produces a “sweeter” flavor. In addition, the extra fermentation will round out the spices in the leaf and make it richer in flavor.
Until recently, maduros have not been produced in